Which of the following was not an invention that helped to birth modern sports? (2023)

Which of the following was not an invention that helped to birth modern sports? (1)


(Video) Cristiano Ronaldo Jr. moving just like his father 😳

  • Road transportinnovations[edit]
  • Civil engineeringinnovations[edit]
  • Aviation innovations[edit]
  • Powerinnovations[edit]
  • Shipbuildinginnovations[edit]
  • Militaryinnovations[edit]
  • Heavy industryinnovations[edit]
  • Agricultural innovations[edit]
  • Communication innovations[edit]
  • Publishing firsts[edit]
  • Culture and thearts[edit]
  • Scientific innovations[edit]
  • Sports innovations[edit]
  • Medicalinnovations[edit]
  • Householdinnovations[edit]
  • Weapons innovations[edit]
  • Miscellaneous innovations[edit]
  • See also[edit]
  • References[edit]
  • Publications[edit]
  • Externallinks[edit]
  • What are the invention of sports?
  • What was the first modern sport invented?
  • What are the 5 most important invention?
  • How did modern sports evolve?

Scottish inventions and discoveries are objects, processes or techniques either partially or entirely invented, innovated, or discovered by a person born in or descended from Scotland. In some cases, an invention's Scottishness is determined by the fact that it came into existence in Scotland (e.g.,animal cloning), by non-Scots working in the country. Often, things that are discovered for the first time are also called "inventions" and in many cases there is no clear line between the two.

The Scots take enormous pride in the history of Scottish invention and discovery. There are many books devoted solely to the subject, as well as scores of websites listing Scottish inventions and discoveries with varying degrees of science.

Even before the Industrial Revolution, Scots have been at the forefront of innovation and discovery across a wide range of spheres.Some of the most significant products of Scottish ingenuity include James Watt's steam engine, improving on that of ThomasNewcomen,[2] the bicycle,[3]macadamisation (not to be confused with tarmac or tarmacadam[4]),Alexander Graham Bell's invention of the first practical telephone,[5] John Logie Baird's invention oftelevision,[6][7] Alexander Fleming's discovery ofpenicillin[8] andinsulin.[9]

The following is a list of inventions, innovations, or discoveries that are known or generally recognised as being Scottish.

(Video) ANKLES 💀 #shorts

Road transportinnovations[edit]

  • Macadamised roads (the basis for, but not specifically, tarmac): John Loudon McAdam (1756–1836)[4]
  • The pedal bicycle: Attributed to both Kirkpatrick Macmillan(1813–1878)[3] and Thomas McCall (1834–1904)
  • The pneumatic tyre:Robert William Thomson and John Boyd Dunlop (1822–1873)[10]
  • Theoverhead valve engine: David Dunbar Buick (1854–1929)[11]

Civil engineeringinnovations[edit]

  • Tubular steel: Sir WilliamFairbairn (1789–1874)[12]
  • The Falkirk wheel: Initial designs by Nicoll Russell Studios, Architects,RMJM and engineers Binnie, Black, and Veatch (Opened 2002)[13][14]
  • Thepatent slip for docking vessels: Thomas Morton(1781–1832)[15][16]
  • The Drummond Light:Thomas Drummond (1797–1840)[17]
  • Canal design: Thomas Telford(1757–1834)[18]
  • Dock design improvements: John Rennie(1761–1821)[19]
  • Crane design improvements: James Bremner(1784–1856)[20]
  • "Trac Rail Transposer", a machine to lay rail track patented in 2005, used by Network Rail in the United Kingdom and the New YorkCity Subway in the United States.[21][22][23]

Aviation innovations[edit]

  • Aircraft design:Frank Barnwell (1910) Establishing the fundamentals of aircraft design at the University of Glasgow.[24]


  • Condensing steam engine improvements: James Watt(1736–1819)[2]
  • Thermodynamic cycle: William John Macquorn Rankine(1820–1872)[25]
  • Coal-gas lighting: William Murdoch(1754–1839)[26]
  • The Stirling heat engine: Rev. Robert Stirling(1790–1878)[27]
  • Carbon brushes for dynamos: GeorgeForbes (1849–1936)[28]
  • The Clerk cycle gas engine: Sir Dugald Clerk(1854–1932)[29]
  • The wave-powered electricity generator: by South African EngineerStephen Salter in 1977[30]
  • The Pelamis Wave Energy Converter ("red sea snake" wave energy device):Richard Yemm, 1998[31]


  • Europe's first passenger steamboat: Henry Bell(1767–1830)[32]
  • The first iron–hulled steamship: Sir WilliamFairbairn (1789–1874)[33]
  • The first practical screw propeller: Robert Wilson(1803–1882)[citation needed]
  • Marine engine innovations: James Howden(1832–1913)[34]
  • John Elder and Charles Randolph (Marine Compound expansion engine)[34]


  • Lieutenant-General Sir David Henderson two areas:
    • Field intelligence. Argued for the establishment of the Intelligence Corps. Wrote Field Intelligence: Its Principles and Practice (1904) and The Art of Reconnaissance (1907) on the tactical intelligence of modernwarfare.[35]
  • Intelligence: Allan Pinkerton developed the still relevant intelligencetechniques of "shadowing" (surveillance) and "assuming a role" (undercover work) in his time as head of the Union Intelligence Service.

Heavy industryinnovations[edit]

  • Coal mining extraction in the sea on an artificial island by Sir George Bruce of Carnock (1575). Regarded as one of the industrial wonders of the late medieval period.[36]
  • Making cast steel from wroughtiron: David Mushet (1772–1847)[37]
  • Wrought iron sash bars for glass houses: John C. Loudon (1783–1865)[38]
  • The hot blast oven: James Beaumont Neilson(1792–1865)[39]
  • The steam hammer: James Nasmyth(1808–1890)[40]
  • Wire rope: Robert Stirling Newall(1812–1889)[41]
  • Steam engine improvements: William Mcnaught (1831–1881)[42]
  • The Fairlie, a narrow gauge, double-bogie railway engine:Robert Francis Fairlie (1831–1885)[43]
  • Cordite - Sir James Dewar, Sir Frederick Abel(1889)[44]

Agricultural innovations[edit]

  • Threshing machine improvements: James Meikle (c.1690-c.1780) & Andrew Meikle(1719–1811)[45]
  • Hollow pipe drainage: Sir Hew Dalrymple, Lord Drummore (1700–1753)[46]
  • The Scotch plough: James Anderson of Hermiston(1739–1808)[47]
  • Deanstonisation soil-drainage system:James Smith (1789–1850)[48]
  • The mechanical reaping machine: Rev.Patrick Bell (1799–1869)[49]
  • The Fresno scraper: JamesPorteous (1848–1922)[50]
  • The Tuley tree shelter: Graham Tuley in1979[51]

Communication innovations[edit]

  • Telephone: Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922)
  • Print stereotyping: William Ged(1690–1749)[52]
  • Roller printing: Thomas Bell (patented 1783)[53]
  • Theadhesive postage stamp and the postmark: claimed by James Chalmers(1782–1853)[54]
  • The Waverley pen nib innovations thereof: Duncan Cameron (1825–1901) The popular "Waverley" was unique in design with a narrow waist and an upturned tip designed to make the ink flow moresmoothly on the paper.[55]
  • Universal Standard Time: Sir Sandford Fleming(1827–1915)[56]
  • Light signalling between ships: Admiral Philip H. Colomb(1831–1899)[57]
  • The underlying principles of radio: James Clerk Maxwell(1831–1879)[58]
  • The Kinetoscope, a motion picture camera: devised in 1889 by William Kennedy Dickson(1860-1935)[59]
  • The teleprinter: Frederick G. Creed(1871–1957)[60]
  • The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC): John Reith, 1st Baron Reith(1922) its founder, first general manager and director-general of the British Broadcasting Corporation[61]
  • RADAR: A significant contributionmade by Robert Watson-Watt (1892–1973) alongside Englishman Henry Tizard (1885-1959) and others[62]
  • The automated teller machine and Personal Identification Number system: James Goodfellow (born1937)[63]

Publishing firsts[edit]

  • The first edition of theEncyclopedia Britannica (1768–81)[64]
  • The first English textbook on surgery(1597)[65]
  • The first modern pharmacopaedia, William Cullen (1776). The book became 'Europe's principal text on the classification and treatment ofdisease'. His ideas survive in the terms nervous energy and neuroses (a word that Cullen coined).[66]
  • The first postcards and picture postcards in theUK[67]
  • The educational foundation of Ophthalmology: Stewart Duke-Elder in his ground breaking work including ‘Textbook of Ophthalmology andfifteen volumes of System of Ophthalmology’[68]

Culture and thearts[edit]

  • Gospel music: according to Yale University music professor Willie Ruff, the singing of psalms inScottish Gaelic by Presbyterians of the Scottish Hebrides evolved from "lining out"—where one person sang a solo and othersfollowed—into the call and response of gospel music of the American South.
  • Scottish National Portrait Gallery, designed by Sir Robert RowandAnderson (1889): the world's first purpose-built portrait gallery.[69]
  • Ethereal wave: a subgenre of dark wave music that emerged with the release of the albumsHead over Heels and Treasure by Scottish band Cocteau Twins.
  • Shoegaze: a subgenre of indie and alternative rock pioneered by Scottish bands such as Cocteau Twins and TheJesus and Mary Chain.
  • Future bass: a style of electronic dance music pioneered by Scottish producers such as Rustie and Hudson Mohawke.
  • Hyperpop: a microgenre characterized by a maximalist or exaggerated take on popular music pioneered by Scottish producer Sophie.

Scientific innovations[edit]

  • Logarithms: John Napier (1550–1617)[70]
  • Modern Economics founded byAdam Smith (1776) 'The father of modern economics'[71] with the publication of The Wealth ofNations.[72][73]
  • Modern Sociology: Adam Ferguson (1767) ‘The Father of Modern Sociology’ with his workAn Essay on the History of Civil Society[74]
  • Hypnotism:James Braid (1795–1860) the Father of Hypnotherapy[75]
  • Tropical medicine:Sir Patrick Manson known as the father of Tropical Medicine[76]
  • Modern Geology:James Hutton ‘The Founder of ModernGeology’[77][78][79]
  • The theory ofUniformitarianism: James Hutton (1788): a fundamental principle of Geology the features of the geologic time takes millions of years.[80]
  • The theory of electromagnetism: James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879)[81]
  • The discovery of the Composition of Saturn's RingsJames Clerk Maxwell (1859): determined the rings of Saturn were composed of numerous small particles, all independently orbiting the planet. At the time it was generally thought the rings were solid. The Maxwell Ringlet and Maxwell Gap were named in hishonor.[82]
  • The Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution by James Clerk Maxwell (1860): the basis of thekinetic theory of gases, that speeds of molecules in a gas will change at different temperatures. The original theory first hypothesised by Maxwell and confirmed later in conjunction with Ludwig Boltzmann.[83]
  • Popularising thedecimal point: John Napier (1550–1617)[84]
  • The first theory of theHiggs boson by English born [85] Peter Higgs particle-physics theorist at the University of Edinburgh(1964)[86]
  • The Gregorian telescope: James Gregory(1638–1675)[87]
  • The discovery of Proxima Centauri, the closest known star to the Sun, byRobert Innes (1861–1933)[88]
  • One of the earliest measurements of distance to the Alpha Centauri star system, the closest such system outside ofthe Solar System, by Thomas Henderson (1798–1844)[89]
  • The discovery ofCentaurus A, a well-known starburst galaxy in the constellation of Centaurus, byJames Dunlop (1793–1848)[90]
  • The discovery of the Horsehead Nebula in theconstellation of Orion, by Williamina Fleming(1857–1911)[91]
  • The world's first oil refinery and a process of extracting paraffin from coal laying the foundations for the modern oil industry: James Young (1811–1883)[92]
  • The identification of the minerals yttrialite, thorogummite, aguilarite and nivenite: by William Niven(1889)[93]
  • The concept of latent heat by French-born Joseph Black(1728–1799)[94]
  • Discovering the properties of Carbon dioxide by French-born Joseph Black (1728–1799)
  • The concept ofHeat capacity by French-born Joseph Black (1728–1799)
  • The pyroscope,atmometer and aethrioscope scientific instruments: Sir John Leslie(1766–1832)[95]
  • Identifying the nucleus in living cells:Robert Brown (1773–1858)[96]
  • An early form of the Incandescent light bulb:James Bowman Lindsay (1799-1862)[97]
  • Colloid chemistry:Thomas Graham (1805–1869)[98]
  • The kelvin SIunit of temperature by Irishman William Thomson, Lord Kelvin(1824–1907)[99]
  • Devising the diagramatic system of representing chemical bonds: Alexander Crum Brown (1838–1922)[100]
  • Criminal fingerprinting: Henry Faulds(1843–1930)[101]
  • The noble gases: Sir William Ramsay(1852–1916)[102]
  • The cloud chamber recording of atoms:Charles Thomson Rees Wilson (1869–1959)[103][104]
  • The discovery of theWave of Translation, leading to the modern general theory of solitons by John Scott Russell (1808-1882)[105]
  • Statistical graphics: William Playfair founder of the first statistical line charts,bar charts, and pie charts in (1786) and (1801) known as a scientific ‘milestone’ in statistical graphs and datavisualization[106][107]
  • The Arithmetic meandensity of the Earth: Nevil Maskelyne conducted the Schiehallion experiment conducted at the Scottishmountain of Schiehallion, Perthshire1774[108]
  • The first isolation of methylated sugars, trimethyl and tetramethyl glucose: JamesIrvine[109][110]
  • Discovery of the Japp–Klingemann reaction: tosynthesize hydrazones from β-keto-acids (or β-keto-esters) and aryl diazonium salts 1887[111]
  • Pioneering work on nutrition and poverty:John Boyd Orr (1880–1971)[112]
  • Ferrocene synthetic substances:Peter Ludwig Pauson in 1955[113]
  • The first cloned mammal(Dolly the Sheep): Was conducted in The Roslin Institute research centre in 1996 by English scientists IanWilmut (born 1944) and Keith Campbell (1954–2012).[114]
  • The seismometer innovations thereof:James David Forbes[115]
  • Metaflex fabric innovations thereof: University of St. Andrews (2010) application of the first manufacturing fabrics that manipulate light in bending it around a subject. Before this such light manipulating atoms were fixed on flat hard surfaces. The team at St Andrews are the first to develop the concept to fabric.[116]
  • Tractor beam innovations thereof: St. Andrews University (2013) the world's first to succeed in creating a functioning Tractor beam that pulls objects on a microscopiclevel[117][118]
  • Macaulayite: Dr. Jeff Wilson of theMacaulay Institute, Aberdeen.[119]
  • Discovery ofCatacol whitebeam by Scottish Natural Heritage and the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (1990s): a rare tree endemic and unique to theIsle of Arran in south west Scotland. The trees were confirmed as a distinct species by DNA testing.[120]

The first positive displacement liquid flowmeter, the reciprocating piston meter by Thomas KennedySnr.[121]

Sports innovations[edit]

Scots have been instrumental in the inventionand early development of several sports:

  • Australian rules football Scots were prominent with many innovations in the early evolution of the game, including the establishment of the Essendon Football Club by the McCracken family fromAyrshire[122][123][124]
  • Several modernathletics events, i.e. shot put[125] and thehammer throw,[125] derive from Highland Games and earlier 12th century Scotland[125]
  • Curling[126]
  • Gaelic handball The modern game of handball is first recorded in Scotland in 1427, when King James I, an ardent handball player, had his men block up a cellar window in his palace courtyard that was interfering with his game.[127]
  • Cycling, invention of the pedal-cycle[128]
  • Golf (see Golf in Scotland)
  • 1848:Association football's Glasgow rules (largely the sport's rules as we know them today) established at University ofGlasgow.[129]
  • Ice Hockey, invented by the Scots regiments in Atlantic Canada by playing Shinty on frozen lakes.
  • ShintyThe history of Shinty as a non-standardised sport pre-dates Scotland the Nation. The rules were standardised in the 19th century by Archibald Chisholm[130]
  • Rugby sevens: Ned Haig and David Sanderson(1883)[131]
  • The Dugout was invented by Aberdeen FC Coach DonaldColman in the 1920s
  • The world's first Robot Olympics which took place in Glasgow in 1990.


  • Pioneering the use of surgical anaesthesia with Chloroform:Firstly in 1842 by Robert Mortimer Glover then extended for use on humans by Sir James Young Simpson (1811–1870)[132] Initial useof chloroform in dentistry by Francis Brodie Imlach
  • The Saline drip by Dr Thomas Latta of Leith in 1831/32
  • The hypodermic syringe: Alexander Wood (1817–1884)[133]
  • First diagnostic applications of anultrasound scanner: Ian Donald (1910–1987)[134]
  • Independent discovery ofinoculation for smallpox: Johnnie Notions (c. 1730– c.1803)[135]
  • Discovery of hypnotism (November 1841): James Braid(1795–1860)[136]
  • General anaesthetic: Pioneered by Scotsman James Young Simpson and EnglishmanJohn Snow[137]
  • Identifying the mosquito as the carrier ofmalaria: Sir Ronald Ross (1857–1932)[138]
  • Identifying the cause ofbrucellosis: Sir David Bruce (1855–1931)[139]
  • Discovering the vaccine fortyphoid fever: Sir William B. Leishman (1865–1926)[140]
  • Electrocardiography: Alexander Muirhead (1869)[141][142]
  • Discovery ofStaphylococcus: Sir Alexander Ogston (1880)[143]
  • Discovering insulin:John J R Macleod (1876–1935) with others[9] The discovery led him to be awarded the 1923 Nobelprize in Medicine.[144]
  • Penicillin: Sir Alexander Fleming(1881–1955)[8]
  • Pioneering of X-ray cinematography:John Macintyre (1896); the first moving real time X-ray image and the first KUB X-ray diagnostic image of a kidney stone insitu[145][146][147]
  • Establishment of standardized Ophthalmology: Sir Stewart Duke-Elder, a pioneering Ophthalmologist in the1930-50s[68]
  • The first hospital Radiation therapy unit: John Macintyre (1902); to assist in the diagnosis andtreatment of injuries and illness at Glasgow Royal Infirmary[145]
  • The Haldane effect, a property of hemoglobin: First described byJohn Scott Haldane (1907)[148]
  • The first Decompression tables:John Scott Haldane (1908); to calculate the safe return of deep-sea divers to surface atmospheric pressure[149]
  • Oxygen therapy:John Scott Haldane (1922), with the publication of ‘The Therapeutic Administration of Oxygen Therapy’, beginning the modern era of Oxygen therapy[150]
  • Transplant rejection: Professor Thomas Gibson (1940s) the first medical doctor to understand the relationship between donor graft tissue and host tissue rejection and tissue transplantation by his work on aviation burns victims during World WarII[151]
  • Discovering an effective tuberculosis treatment: Sir John Crofton in the1950s[152]
  • Developing the first beta-blocker drugs: Sir James W. Black in 1964;[153] revolutionized the medical management of angina[154] and is considered to beone of the most important contributions to clinical medicine and pharmacology of the 20th century.[155] In 1988 Black was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine.
  • Developing modern asthma therapy based both on bronchodilation (salbutamol) and anti-inflammatory steroids (beclomethasone dipropionate): Sir David Jack (1972)
  • Chainsaw invented by surgeons John Aitken and James Jeffray for widening the birth canal during difficultchildbirth[156]
  • Glasgow coma scale: Graham Teasdale andBryan J. Jennett (1974)[157]
  • Glasgow Outcome Scale:Bryan J. Jennett & Sir Michael Bond (1975): diagnostic tool for patients with brain injuries, such as cerebral traumas[158]
  • Discovering and developing the anesthetic drug Propofol: Dr. John B. Glen (1977); a globally-used surgical anesthetic common in general surgery cases. In 2018 Dr. Glen received a LaskerAward.[159]
  • Glasgow Anxiety Scale: J.Mindham and C.A Espie (2003)[160]
  • Glasgow Depression Scale: Fiona Cuthill (2003); the first accurate self-report scale to measure the levels ofdepression in people with learning disabilities[161]
  • Discovering the Human papillomavirus vaccine:Ian Frazer (2006); the second cancer preventing vaccine, and the world's first vaccine designed to prevent a cancer[162]
  • Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS): Strathclyde University (2014); a laser and nanoparticle test to detectMeningitis or multiple pathogenic agents at the same time.[163]


  • The television: John Logie Baird (1923)
  • Therefrigerator: William Cullen (1748)[164]
  • The flush toilet:Alexander Cumming (1775)[165]
  • The vacuum flask: Sir JamesDewar (1847–1932)[166]
  • The first distiller to triple distill Irishwhiskey:[167]John Jameson (Whisky distiller)
  • The piano footpedal: John Broadwood(1732–1812)[168]
  • The first automated can-filling machine John West (1809–1888)[169]
  • The waterproof macintosh: Charles Macintosh (1766–1843)[170]
  • Thekaleidoscope: Sir David Brewster (1781–1868)[171]
  • Keiller's marmalade Janet Keiller (1797) - The first recipe of rind suspended marmalade or Dundee marmalade produced in Dundee.
  • The modern lawnmower:Alexander Shanks (1801–1845)[172]
  • The Lucifer friction match: SirIsaac Holden (1807–1897)[173]
  • The self filling pen:Robert Thomson (1822–1873)[174]
  • Cotton-reel thread:J & J Clark of Paisley[175]
  • Lime cordial: Lauchlan Rose in 1867
  • Bovril beef extract: John Lawson Johnston in 1874[176]
  • The electric clock: Alexander Bain(1840)[177]
  • Chemical Telegraph (Automatic Telegraphy) Alexander Bain (1846) In England Bain's telegraph was used on the wires of the Electric Telegraph Company to a limited extent, and in 1850 it was used inAmerica.[178]
  • Barr's Irn-Bru, soft drink produced by Barr's in Cumbernauld Scotland and exported all around the world. The drink is so widely popular in Scotland that itoutsells both American colas Coca-Cola and Pepsi and ranks 3rd most popular drink in the UK with Coca-Cola and Pepsi taking the first two spots.[179]

Weapons innovations[edit]

  • The carronade cannon: Robert Melville (1723–1809)[180]
  • The Ferguson rifle: Patrick Ferguson in1770[181]
  • The Lee bolt system as used in the Lee–Metford and Lee–Enfield series rifles:James Paris Lee[182]
  • The Ghillie suit pioneered by the LovatScouts[183]
  • The percussion cap: invented by Scottish Presbyterian clergyman AlexanderForsyth[184]

Miscellaneous innovations[edit]

  • Boys' Brigade: Sir William Alexander Smith[185]
  • Bank of England devised by William Paterson
  • Bank of France devised byJohn Law
  • Grand Theft Auto: developed by Scottish game developers DMA Design (later known asRockstar North)
  • The industrialisation and modernisation of Japan by Thomas Blake Glover[186]
  • Colour photography: the first known permanent colour photograph was taken by James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879)[187]
  • Buick Motor Company by David Dunbar Buick[188]
  • New YorkHerald newspaper by James Gordon Bennett, Sr.[188]
  • Pinkerton National Detective Agency by Allan Pinkerton[188]
  • Forbes magazine by B. C. Forbes[188]
  • Friedchicken: the origin of fried chicken in the southern states of America has been traced to precedents in Scottish cuisine.
  • The establishment of a standardized botanical institute: Isaac BayleyBalfour[189]
  • London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine: founded by Sir PatrickManson in 1899[76]

See also[edit]

  • List of British innovations and discoveries
  • List of English inventions and discoveries
  • List of domesticated Scottish breeds
  • List of Welsh inventors
  • Homecoming Scotland 2009
  • Timeline of Irish inventions and discoveries
  • Science in Medieval Western Europe


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  • Visit Scotland - Scottish Inventions


  • Great Scottish Discoveries and Inventions, Bill Fletcher,William W. Fletcher, John Harrold, Drew, 1985, University of California, ISBN0-86267-084-5, ISBN978-0-86267-084-9
  • Great Scottish inventions and discoveries: a concise guide: a selection of Scottish inventions and discoveries made over a period stretching back to the fifteenth century, John Geddes, Northern Books, 1994
  • Scottish Inventors, Alistair Fyfe, HarperCollins, 1999,ISBN0-00-472326-0, ISBN978-0-00-472326-6
  • The Scottish invention of America, democracy and human rights: a history of liberty and freedom from the ancient Celts to the New Millennium, Alexander Leslie Klieforth, Robert John Munro, University Press of America, 2004,ISBN0-7618-2791-9, ISBN978-0-7618-2791-7
  • Philosophical chemistry in the Scottish enlightenment: the doctrines and discoveries of William Cullen and Joseph Black, Arthur L. Donovan


  • Top Twenty Scottish Inventions, 15th International World Wide Web Conference, Edinburgh, 2006
  • Scottish Inventors . . . who keep the world in touch, Global Friends of Scotland (a Scottish Executive website)
  • Scottish Inventors and their Inventions, Kenmay Academy

What are the invention of sports?

With the first Olympic Games in 776 BC—which included events such as foot and chariot races, wrestling, jumping, and discus and javelin throwing—the Ancient Greeks introduced formal sports to the world.

What was the first modern sport invented?

Although it is impossible to know for sure, it is usually considered that wrestling and boxing were the first sports ever played. Competitions using the simple mode of human transport, running, would also have been among the first sports played.

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What are the 5 most important invention?

5 Inventions That Changed The World.

The Wheel. Some people consider the wheel to be the greatest invention of all time. ... .

The Elevator. Mechanisms for vertical transport date back thousands of years. ... .

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The Printing Press. ... .

Vaccines. ... .

The Computer..

How did modern sports evolve?

Modern sport developed out of new forms of associativity created during the European enlightenment. The fundamental unit of modern sport is the club, and these associations developed autonomously in Britain during the eighteenth century following the retreat of the statefrom the control of associative activities.

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